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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Sometimes bosses suck. But if your boss sucks all the time and takes advantage of your time, it's time to find a new job.

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当然,这些新势力也可能引发反弹,使得指挥-控制的老派领导方式卷土重来。令人郁闷的是,主宰世界舞台的政治人物大多是老派的,而他们面临的领导力挑战——从英国退欧到朝鲜问题——尤为复杂。
How do you know if you need to drink more water? Well, there's a list of factors: dry lips, dizziness, headaches, low urine output and increased thirst. Yet, this smart bottle wants you to listen more to your phone than to your body.
祝老师新年充满平安和爱。

Like a lot of critics, I chafe against the arbitrariness of lists even as I recognize their utility. Since I can never stop at 10 — how could I, when something like 900 movies were released in North American theaters? — I picked 15 to match the year, ranked them and ended up fudging that count. So maybe technically it’s a top 20. The slots with more than one title aren’t ties, but double features, paired movies that complement, contend with or amplify each other’s best qualities.
不会。傻子才会去预测足球比赛的结果。最好是作事后诸葛亮。目前已经举办过20届世界杯。其中,巴西(5次捧杯)和德国(4次捧杯)是决赛常客。主场优势有所帮助,东道国赢得了6次奖杯。但是明年的世界杯将在俄罗斯举行,而这位东道主在参赛队伍中排名垫底。
As for China, lack or stopped development represents the biggest risk for this country. So it is essential that we maintain steady medium-high growth of our economy and that in itself is China’s contribution to global stability.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

持续上涨被“重拳”抑制 海南房价出现回落迹象

9. "Vikings" (2.3 million)
新兴市场需求减弱使2015年成为全球金融危机爆发以来世界贸易最糟糕的一年,凸显出对于全球经济健康的担忧加深。
You`d love to know the balance of forces that shape and move your ponytail, right? That`s why Joseph Keller, Raymond Goldstein, Patrick Warren and Robin Ball received this igNOMINIOUS prize!

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

No. The much-hyped US electric carmaker once promised to make 400,000 of its new dream machines in 2018. Its latest production targets imply 200,000-300,000. But serious glitches in battery production have meant a slow start, and Tesla’s record is not good. With Tesla yet to show it can wean itself off constant infusions of Wall Street cash, 2018 cold be a make or break year.
Index: 96.6
达奇斯说:捷蓝航空在2012年初遇到过很多困难(一名飞行员在飞行途中突然精神崩溃,这让公司这一年的开头极为艰难),但是在繁忙的假日旅行期间,顾客的满意和优秀的社交服务把这个品牌带入了成功的行列。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Google's top 10 searches for 2017–U.S.
  • 东易日盛布控家居O2O 拟投资美乐乐
  • At least two Harvard professors, however, questioned the decision to withdraw the offers. Alan Dershowitz, an emeritus professor at Harvard Law School, told the Guardian that losing admission to Harvard was a "draconian punishment" for "very bad taste jokes that students were sending to each other".
  • 家居卖场开春首个“促销季”来临
  • 楼市新政出台 业内称热点城市房价或迎温和上涨
  • 奥巴马在俄亥俄州、威斯康星州、爱荷华州、宾夕法尼亚州和新罕布什尔州都以微弱的优势超过了罗姆尼,而在这些地方罗姆尼都曾经前往发表过演讲。根据网络数据,唯一被罗姆尼的风采征服的摇摆州是北卡罗来纳州。
    For the fourth year in a row, the top five places continue to be dominated by the same five intercontinental EMBAs. Tiemba came top this year not by spectacularly outperforming its rivals but thanks to a strong performance across most indicators. In particular, the alumni have the second highest salary on average ($324,000) behind alumni from the Kellogg/HKUST programme ($408,000). Tiemba is also ranked second for career progression and fourth for work experience.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 新建景观带扒了重建“折腾式浪费”何时休, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

上海一小区鸽棚“钉子户”屡拆屡建 邻居不堪其扰向12345市民服务热线投诉

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

从“欧普到家灯易换”看LED照明企业如何打造社区服务平台?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 自从2008年智能手机应用商店开始运营以来,达洛伊西奥就着手设计iPhone手机应用软件。那时12岁的他住在伦敦的温布尔顿,用卧室里的Mac电脑来工作。因为年纪太小,他在填写苹果(Apple)开发执照申请时用的都是他爸爸的名字。这之前他没在学校受过正式的电脑培训,他的父母(一个是律师,一个是商界管理人士)也都不从事技术行业工作。他几乎是完全靠刷网页、看教程来自学编程的。
    答:和青木桑一起处理分镜真的是一件很快乐的事呢。有一种“队伍里会有青木桑是毫无疑问的吧“这样的感觉。有了他,相信动画的表现就不会有问题了呢。
  • A candidate's age is no gauge of their effectiveness, Sonneborn tells PEOPLE, saying that despite Donald Trump being the oldest person elected to the U.S. Presidency, “He tweets like a kindergartener.”
    2015年9月,当“防止虐待动物协会(RSPCA)”的检察员们打开这处位于南澳大利亚阿德莱德的房子时,他们发现了14只猫咪,其中13只已经死去,仅存的那只也瘦弱不堪。
    当你和他/她在一起的时候,你看不见周围的所有人,你的眼中只有他/她
    去年,中国工商银行的每股盈利为0.77元人民币,低于上一年的0.78元人民币,税前每股分红为0.2333元人民币,低于上一年的0.2554元人民币。
    3. 《聚焦》(Spotlight),导演:汤姆·麦卡锡(Tom McCarthy)。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • “网约房”受年轻消费者追捧 走向规范化仍在路上
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 节后建材市场价格稳中探涨 商家陆续返市

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The survey found the majority of grads, or 73.5 percent, have found jobs, while the number of students set to continue their studies in China accounted for just 6.3 percent, sharply down from 16.5 percent in 2016.
Last but by no means least is our favourite fact that Norway once knighted a penguin. His name is Nils Olav, and he is a king penguin who now resides on Edinburgh Zoo, Scotland. He is the mascot and Colonel-in-Chief of the Norwegian Royal Guard. He was knighted on 15th August, 2008, which was approved by King Harald V, who stated during the ceremony that Nils was "in every way qualified to receive the honour and dignity of knighthood".
我是否徘徊过去?回顾过去,沉迷于我们遗憾或者错过的事情是非常诱人和几乎令人不由自主的。学会放手,只专注于当前发生的事和你今日将要面临的选择吧。
Libby has posted the lyrics on her YouTube channel in the comments section, but here they are for you. There are plenty of lovely English expressions and British English slang that I’ve highlighted in bold for you. Can you guess the meaning? What does “OMG” stand for?
[di'klain]
曼诺拉·达吉斯
The global trend of peace, development and cooperation and globalization are indivisible.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 她表示:“美国宪法第一修正案中对于言论自由的保护仅针对公共实体的违法情况,而哈佛是所私立大学,所以第一修正案根本不适用。”
  • “剁手双十一”将入侵各大行业:家居行业11月初现营销热潮
  • Carry out deleveraging in an active and prudent way.
    10Norway
  • 以量占领市场 达成家具高销售额
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • In 1953, Patient HM had experimental brain surgery that left him with striking amnesia. Decades of subsequent research with HM by neuropsychologist Suzanne Corkin made a major contribution to our understanding of memory.
    《边桥谜案》(The Bridge),Hulu,周五播出。这部丹麦、瑞典合拍的犯罪剧即将迎来第二季(FX的同名剧集就是根据它改编的,最近刚刚被砍掉),新的一季仍与连接两个乡村的奥莱桑德桥有关。
  • Shares in Hyundai and AmorePacific slid on Friday, down 4.4 per cent and 12.5 per cent respectively in late afternoon trading in Seoul.
    The world’s 100 biggest brands still command a significant premium over others and that value increased by 3 per cent to $3.4tn this year, according to the latest BrandZ rankings compiled by Millward Brown, the research agency.
  • Format: Alternating Friday-Saturday classes, with an initial week-long meeting and a week-long international study seminar
    CCTV reported Friday morning that teams would still try to lift the vessel.
  • 节目7 歌曲《春暖花开》,那英
    Emma Morano’s singular achievement in life may have been perseverance. She lived for 117 years, crediting her longevity to raw eggs and her lack of a husband. She died on April 15.
    As stars such as Kevin Spacey and Morgan Freeman were alleged to have assaulted or harassed performers, activists began using the hashtag to share their ordeals online.
  • Businesswomen are booming in Asia: The whole region makes a strong showing, from China and Singapore to New Zealand and Thailand. Entrepreneurship is on the rise: see Zhang Xin (No. 50) , Sun Yafang (No. 77) and Solina Chau (No. 80). And Asian region women are showing their political might, from newcomer Park Geun-hye, the South Korean president (No. 11) and Burmese dissident and parliamentarian Aung San Suu Kyi (No. 29) to Australian PM Julia Gillard (No. 28) and Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra (No. 31).
    “…brought his dog.”
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 发改委调研上海楼市听多说少 关注长效机制 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

新世纪光电完成5亿元再融资案

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

北京个人租房贷款最高100万元

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

建筑用钢库存连增两周 钢价旺季持续下跌

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

上海租金没有非理性上涨,市中心部分房源紧俏

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 3=somewhat true
  • adj. 高品质的
  • 缺乏定制基因 传统卫浴转型步履维艰

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

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  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 网络游戏成了中国的重要行业。北京第三方数据分析公司Cnzz.com新公布的报告预计,2012年中国网络游戏市场规模将达到人民币410亿元(合60亿美元),占据全球网游市场的半壁江山。
    Condos and co-ops have been laying down the law, writing warning memos and fining wayward residents. For renters, breaking the rules could jeopardize a lease. Condos are tightening security, asking doormen to scrutinize visitors and requiring residents to sign authorization forms for guests. The practice has also raised insurance concerns.
    The school is also second for its international course experience. More than four in five of its latest graduating cohort went on an internship abroad and over half studied in another country for more than a month.
  • Mila Kunis just keeps on raking in those sexy titles.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

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  • 建材行业:不畏浮云遮望眼 淡季布局正当时
  • 用这个背带背孩子更加方便舒适。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 谷歌智能家居内乱启示录
  • Household substance abuse
  • 红木市场冷清 业内称红木家具价格已经触底
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

遇冷!南京下半年首场土拍冷清落幕 城南宅地仅1轮加价成交

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 量子点混合LED超乎想象 新一代照明系统指日可待
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 如何提高市场竞争力 家居企业需先重视科技创新
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

中国的科技巨头联想仍是PC市场的老大--占有市场份额的20%以上。惠普和戴尔分别名列第二、第三,苹果和华硕电脑并列第四。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

爱因斯坦复活了?
No Bad Manners Awards could be complete without a mention of a Kardashian, could it?
或许纯粹是巧合,但Magento首位产品经理蒂姆o舒尔茨也刚刚加入Bigcommerce,出任产品管理高级副总裁。舒尔茨近年来担任谷歌Shopping Express、Wallet等服务的战略合伙和商业发展高管,未来将专注于Bigcommerce的一站式体验,将电子商务和实体零售更好地结合起来。“消费者想要无缝化体验,”他说。
It’s been one of the worst years for investment decision-making on record, almost across the board. No strategy worked consistently, save for the type of shareholder activism that only a handful of Wall Street’s billionaire titans are able to engage in.
Klay Thompson added 19 points and Andrew Bogut scored 13 for the Warriors, off to the best start by an NBA team since Dallas won its first 14 games in 2002-03. Golden State needs three wins to equal the league record of 15-0, held by the 1948-49 Washington Capitols and 1993-94 Houston Rockets.
China has recently made majordecisions about its economic future. On November 15, 2013, China announceddramatic new social and economic policies contemplating much greater relianceon market forces than it has in the past and inviting private-sectorparticipation and foreign competition in industries long previously controlledby the central government. It also relaxed its one-child policy, openingthe country and its people to vast new opportunities and inspiring new hopes anddreams.
共和党候选人时常表现出不确定以及偶尔会忘了自己要说的,好像在试图记住他的简要笔记。当奥巴马从一开始就咄咄逼人时他开始出汗,在伊朗、伊拉克、俄罗斯以及美国的军费开支的交流中他才表现得更好。
6. Miranda Kerr
英国剑桥大学Judge商学院(Judge Business School)排名上升速度最快,今年上升19位,名列第29位,这得益于其在高管MBA排名中的出色表现(该学院今年首次参与此项排名)。华威商学院(Warwick Business School)重返榜单前20名(位列第19),该校去年未参加管理硕士排名。
昨日,108名表演者身着熊猫服装,穿行在伦敦的街头,向大众宣传这种惹人喜爱却面临灭绝危险的黑白物种。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

明年钢材需求量将小幅增加 供求矛盾仍难解决

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 2012年,谷歌发明了谷歌眼镜,一台你能戴在你脸上的电脑。在街上行走或者进行每天的任务的时候戴着它,可以同步看一些覆盖在眼镜上的日程会议,短信及地铁警戒等信息。戴着它行走的时候,可以用它们打视频电话,甚至把直播视频上传到网络,这一切都不需要动手。谷歌眼镜可能挺酷的,挺新颖,还有创新性,但是它绝对不是第一副可佩戴的电脑眼镜。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 随着北京方面采取的资本管制对海外收购交易起到抑制作用,1月份中国企业对海外房地产业的投资额比上年同期下降了84%。
  • 多个国家和地区提高灯具进口门槛 LED企业利润下滑
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  • 豪宅与刚需“两头热” 2016年买房你排哪个队?
  • 我可能会说:“我解雇你是因为你工作不达标。”实际上,我并不会说是因为你实在让人受不了,每次和人沟通都会得罪人。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 家居体验馆引领家装新潮流
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Aoki-san is a pleasure to work withon storyboard. With Aoki-san on the team it feels like a sure thing. The visionof these animations will be perfect.
  • 区块潜力巨大,以至于目前出现了创建更多“侧链”的倡议,尽管该想法存在争议。Chain是一款使创建比特币应用简便化的应用程序接口,该公司首席执行官亚当o卢德温表示:“我们目前并不想干扰主区块。主区块运作良好,我们不想破坏它。”

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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